Tags: recreational drug use

Recreational Drug Use: Do People Living in a Free Sociey have the Right to use Psychotropic Substances "Recreationally"?

04/08/09 | by the professor [mail] | Categories: Drug-Regulation Policy, Recreational Drug Use

This post was actually planned for a later date after the groundwork was laid by exploring basic topics regarding drug abuse and addiction on the ASNet Discussion Forum. However, the recent post on Salvia Divinorum (and to a lesser extent the medical marijuana post) propels this topic to the forefront a bit ahead of schedule. When discussing this topic it is essential to keep in mind the differences between drug abuse and drug addiction and their underlying causes (i.e, the biological basis of addiction vs. the psychosocial factors that often govern drug abuse). A lot of confusion arises from simple problems in semantics when discussing psychoactive drug use, the effects of such drugs, and the rights of individuals. Some of the essential concepts have been presented already on the ASNet Discussion Forum or the Addiction Science Network website (see Related Topics on the ASNet below), but others have not yet been explored adequately. Thus, this topic is a somewhat premature.

The question open for comment is: “does the individual living in a free society have the right to use psychotropic substances?” There are a number of secondary questions that arise from this topic.

  • What right does society have to infringe upon the rights of the individual (cf. constitutional “right to pursue happiness”)?
  • Under what conditions do people have a right to use drugs recreationally?
  • Under what conditions does society have an obligation to regulate drug use?
  • What types of psychoactive substances should be permissible?

Background

The ASNet drug-regulation policy stands firmly behind the strict control of highly addictive drugs. These substances (e.g., 'hard drugs' such as cocaine and heroin) compromise the individual's ability to 'choose' whether to use the substance or not by altering the individual's motivational hierarchy in such a way as to thrust the addictive drug near the top of the person's motivational priorities (see A Primer on Addiction). On the other hand, some psychoactive substances (e.g., caffeine) clearly do not compromise the individual's self-control in a significant way and therefore can be considered part of 'life's little pleasures.' Between these two extremes lie substances that cause considerable alteration in perception, cognition, and/or affect (e.g., 'soft drugs' such as marijuana and LSD) that potentially pose a risk for the individual and for society by impairing judgment and impulse inhibition of the individual while they are experiencing the psychotropic effects of the substance (e.g., intoxication, hallucinations). This is in contradistinction to truly addictive drugs where the risk to the individual and to society is primarily when the individual is not experiencing the psychoactive effect of the drug.

Addiction science can contribute to the development of rational drug-control policy by differentiating drugs that a large proportion of individuals might be expected to ‘lose control’ of their ability to regulate their own drug-using behavior from substances that most individuals experience little difficulty in regulating their own substance use. Other issues that determine society’s acceptance of its citizens’ use of psychotropic substances involve safety (a rational consideration) and moral control (usually a non-rational consideration). Addiction science and the reporting of experimental findings should not present biased information to conform to moral control issues dictated by society or by its government agencies—it should clearly present the facts as the facts, letting individuals make rational decisions regarding personal use on the individual scale and regarding the development of rational drug-control policies on the societal scale.

Related Topics on the ASNet
A Primer on Drug Addiction
The Nature of Addiction
Distinguishing Drug Abuse from Drug Addiction
Distinguishing Drug Dependence from Drug Addiction
Biological Basis of Addiction
Hard and Soft Drugs
Drug Classification
Salvia Divinorum
Medical Marijuana

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“Recreational” Drug Use: A New Discussion Category on the ASNet Forum

04/08/09 | by the professor [mail] | Categories: Drug-Regulation Policy, Recreational Drug Use

A new category for commentary on the ASNet Discussion Forum is being introduced to address drug use other than addictive drug use. Specifically, this category includes the use of psychoactive substances to which the individual hasn’t developed an addiction. In some cases this will involve the use of substances to which addiction is unlikely; in other cases this will involve early-stage use of an addictive substance before an addiction has actually developed.

It is not the intent of the ASNet to encourage illicit substance use by openly discussing this topic. However, it is rather obvious that people do use illicit substances, often in a “recreational” fashion, and that such substance use will continue despite relentless government efforts for social control. It is also possible that the regulations regarding some substances that are now illicit should be relaxed and individuals should be permitted to use these substances freely or under somewhat restricted circumstances.

Before posting or commenting in this category please read the materials recommended below to learn how addiction is defined on this discussion forum, the important difference between drug abuse and addiction, and the relationship of drug dependence to addiction and to drug abuse. Misunderstanding fundamental concepts and breakdown in simple semantics contribute much to the confusion regarding the discussion of these issues.

Addiction science should withhold moral judgments regarding the use of licit or illicit psychoactive substances. Science should provide the unbiased data from which others can make rational decisions regarding their own personal use and regarding the development of formal drug-regulation policies. Within this context, the forum ‘owner’ will occasionally offer comments relevant to the science of addiction or to psychopharmacology in general, but the moral issues regarding psychoactive substance use is left for debate elsewhere (or at least confined to a single, specific ‘thread’ and not interwoven through the pages of the other topics). The topics of interest here include:

  • what substances are being used “recreationally” and how they’re being used,
  • the desired and undesired psychotropic effects of these substances,
  • the perception of relative risk for various substances and for their methods of use, and
  • the identification of safer practices for using unsafe substances.

(This latter topic is related to the ASNet harm-reduction initiative and comments may be incorporated into the ASNet webpage listing “safer practices for using unsafe substances.”)

Recommended Readings on the ASNet
A Primer on Drug Addiction
The Nature of Addiction
Distinguishing Drug Abuse from Drug Addiction
Distinguishing Drug Dependence from Drug Addiction
Biological Basis of Addiction
Hard and Soft Drugs
Drug Classification

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