Category: Addiction Technology Transfer Initiative

KISS-Version: Distinguishing among addiction, abuse, and dependence


It is perhaps ironic that the first KISS-version of one of our commentaries actually comes from an off-site source that has summarized our viewpoint regarding the important distinctions among the terms "addiction," "abuse," and "dependence" perhaps even better for a general audience than our original commentaries. Ms. Jacqueline Marshall recently presented a concise, well-written synopsis that presents our viewpoint on this topic extremely well and in a very readable style. Visit to read her excellent commentary. Thank you, Jacqueline, for your excellent presentation! :)

Our original posts:
Why Distinguishing between Drug Dependence and Drug Addiction is Important
Why Distinguishing between Drug Abuse and Drug Addiction is Important
Distinguishing Drug Abuse from Drug Addiction


ASNet Update 12J19


This update lists new material on the Addiction Science Network (ASNet) website including the ASNet Discussion Forum. Beginning with “Theories of Addiction,” podcasts will be available only as downloads for playing on your mp3 player. We thank for providing storage for the earlier streaming audios which remain available from their website. Click on the links below for direct feed to the new material.

New commentaries added to the ASNet Discussion Forum:

Addiction is an Equal Opportunity Affliction

Why marijuana is unlikely to ever be approved for medicinal use in the United States

There’s No Excuse for Overdose Deaths from Opioid-Based Medications

What will be Obama’s New Policies on Marijuana and Other Illicit Drugs during His Second Term as U.S. President?

New presentations available from the ASNet Podcast Channel:

A Primer on Psychopharmacology (part-3): CSA/DEA drug regulations & “medicinal” marijuana

A Primer on Psychopharmacology (part-4): LMA, dopamine, mood & affect

A Primer on Psychopharmacology (part-5): tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal reactions

A Primer on Psychopharmacology (part-6): characterization of sensitization and its proposed role in drug addiction

A Primer on Psychopharmacology (part-7): using translational research to estimate the period of increased vulnerability for relapse to cocaine addiction

A Primer on Psychopharmacology (part-8: importance of conditioning effects)

Theories of Addiction (part-1: introduction & overview) [download only]

Theories of Addiction (part-2: personality-disorder through tension reduction models) [download only]

This concludes update ASNet12J10.


There’s No Excuse for Overdose Deaths from Opioid-Based Medications


Most of the adverse effects associated with overdose from opioid-based medications could easily be prevented or rectified by simply making naloxone more widely available. It seems as if the medical establish is afraid that letting people know that their overdose can be quickly and effectively reversed will give patients a green light to abuse their opioid medication. Undoubtedly it will for some, but for most it should not. And there is no doubt that it would save thousands of lives!

Naloxone hydrochloride (Narcan) is a selective narcotic antagonist that rapidly and effectively reverses the effects of opioids including those associated with overdose (e.g., respiratory depression). As long as the circulatory system has not collapsed and the naloxone is able to reach the brain, it binds preferentially to opiate receptors blocking the effects of heroin, morphine, oxycodone, methadone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, opium, L-alpha-acetylmethadol, well, you get the idea, opioids.

Naloxone has no effects in people not receiving opioids. It simply blocks the effects of licit and illicit opioids regardless of who or why the drug was administered. (Yes, I know about endogenous opioid peptides [EOPs], wrote a paper or two involving those neuromodulators myself, but the effects of disrupting the EOPs are disappointing for we neuroscientists who were hoping back in the 1980s they would hold the key to everything from overeating to some forms of mental illness.) Naloxone is virtually unnoticeable in someone who has not been receiving opioids and has a very wide margin of safety for dosing in humans.

It’s shame on the medical establishment for withholding this critical information from the public. Should the medical establish and individual physicians be held responsible for these needless deaths? Is it THEIR decision to make, who will live or die based on the availability of this life-saving drug? Why aren’t patient-advocacy groups confronting the medical establishment, lobbying more strongly and unrelentingly for take-home Narcan?

Naloxone has been around for a long time. In fact, my first research using this compound was in 1975 and my first publication with it was in 1977 when I (along with Prof. Larry D. Reid) demonstrated that naloxone hydrochloride effectively and rapidly blocked morphine’s facilitatory action on electrical brain stimulation reward. I continued using naloxone in many of my experiments for the next two decades.

There are certain precautions that must be exercised when using naloxone, and proper medical training is strongly advised. (Self-instruction cards are included in some naloxone rescue kits so that more people can be reached with this life-saving treatment, although professional training is always advisable.) Two of the most important areas for concern involve the precipitation of intense withdrawal reactions and the short half-life of naloxone.

  • Naloxone administered to a person physically dependent on an opioid can precipitate immediate and intense withdrawal reactions. What is normally an unpleasant but relatively safe experience can quickly become a medical emergency, even fatal. The usual procedure is to give the naloxone in graded amounts, increasing the dosage if the overdose victim does not respond within a few minutes. The lowest effective dose of naloxone is desired because it minimizes the adverse effects of precipitated withdrawal.
  • Naloxone’s half-life, which determines its duration of action, is much shorter than that of most opioids. Because naloxone only blocks the opioid’s occupancy of the opiate receptor and does not eliminate it from the body, when the naloxone antagonism wears off there may be sufficient amounts of opioid remaining in the system to cause the victim to relapse back into a coma and die. For this reason, hospitalization and careful monitoring even of patients that seem normal and who feel totally revived (they actually are, until the naloxone effect wears off) is essential for the well-being of the overdose victim. One of the realistic fears that healthcare workers have is that if people are revived without the aid of trained medical personnel they will simply ignore the warning to seek proper medical attention once revived. It is the responsibility of those with the overdose victim to insure that proper medical attention is sought (dial 911 immediately).

On-site resuscitation with naloxone (Narcan) is not an excuse to avoid immediate professional medical attention. For those who are concerned about getting into ‘trouble’ for their heroin overdose, consider how much trouble you or your friend will be in if you’re dead! Furthermore, naloxone is not a CSA/DEA controlled substance nor is having an illicit drug in your bloodstream an illegal act to the best of my knowledge (but then, I’m not an attorney, so I’ll “rest my case” with the first ‘argument’ :roll: – you’d be in more trouble if you’re dead).

While trying to quickly locate information online about New York State’s naloxone rescue kit program, I found a well-written, very informative article from Please refer to that excellent article for much more detail and discussion regarding this important topic.

New York State is to be commended for being among about a dozen U.S. states and several European and Asian countries where naloxone rescue kits are legally available. Unfortunately, while trying to 'fly-under-the-radar' of possible adverse public opinion, New York and other states make it difficult to find information about this important program. The public needs better education about the nature of drug addiction (and while we're at it, so do America's physicians!), and politicians need the proverbial fire lit beneath their butts to get them moving and starting to change attitudes about harm reduction. It's ironic perhaps to some people that the "rescue kits" are available mostly to illicit drug users, and the aging baby-boomers being increasingly prescribed opioid-based medications do not usually have access to this program. Well, at least it seems somewhat ironic to this baby-boomer (e.g., we are the least likely to "abuse" the "kits" in any sense of the word).

I have been advocating take-home naloxone for years as part of a harm-reduction strategy for illicit opioid users, but now there's a whole new group (and generation) that could benefit from this policy as well -- patients prescribed opioid-based medication who are sometimes overdose victims. This commentary is focused on this 'new' group, although my position on naloxone as part of a comprehensive harm-reduction strategy remains ever strong. Perhaps there should be a warning to politicians regarding this issue like the warnings that appear on the opioid medication bottles -- caution: prescription opioid-users vote!

Finally, I just have to state the obvious because I know that this is going to escape the attention of too many people. It's not just about accidental overdose in the person prescribed the opioid-based medication; it's also about the grandchildren who despite ones best efforts find and play with the pills and about the little puppies who quickly grab and devour anything accidentally spilled on the floor by fumbling old hands as if it were a tasty treat. THESE are the other potential victims, perhaps even more deserving of our concern!

This information is not intended as medical advice nor is it a substitute for proper medical training. It is strictly intended to bring this topic to the forefront of discussion and to argue for the widespread availability of take-home naloxone. Write your state and federal representatives in support of this program and acquire and learn to properly use naloxone rescue kits whenever practical (cost estimated under $10).

Click here if you would like to listen to the podcast of this commentary
(length: 9 minutes). Click here for our podcast directory.


Why marijuana is unlikely to ever be approved for medicinal use in the United States


The reason that marijuana is unlikely to ever be approved for medicinal use in the United States is obvious -- so why isn't anybody discussing it? The first step in resolving a problem is usually acknowledging the problem, but the medical community is totally ducking this issue. Do they have a vested interest in it?

This commentary is currently only available as a podcast (length: 24 minute). Click here to listen to the discussion through streaming audio without downloading. Click here to down load the presentation directly. Or click here to visit our full podcast directory.

Usually the written commentaries precede the audio programs on this website, but this one is an exception. I've been discussing this topic for the past 12 or 15 years in my course on drug addiction in relationship to the CSA/DEA Drug Regulation Schedules. A printed version (in rough draft form) has been available for my students' use for probably the past decade. So why haven't I commented on this issue before, especially if "I know the secret"? Simple, I wanted to save SOMETHING for my book. The bigger question is, why hasn't the medical community or even NORML and other marijuana-related lobby groups been discussing it? The first answer to this two-part question is perhaps because the medical community has something to loose. I'll post NORML's reply here when I receive it. OK, you have to listen to the podcast if you want to know more. Or perhaps you already knew this too.

The only reason I'm letting the 'cat out of the bag' ;D here is because I've decided to include the information in a podcast excerpted from one of my impromptu classroom lectures. And once it's out, it's out.

Please be advised that the presentation picks up discussing off-label prescription writing privileges currently enjoyed by American physicians. The context of the presentation is discussing the CSA/DEA Schedules for Controlled Substances in the United States. I was having a bad day, everything had gone wrong up to the presentation including running off to lecture and forgetting to copy the updated slide material I had just hastily finished for my morning lecture. (It wasn't quite [but almost :oops: ] as dumb as it sounds -- I thought I was logged onto my USB memory stick, but the file was still being saved on my hard drive.) So, an unscheduled discussion of an 'old topic' (for me) stalled off a little time :lalala: to ensure that I wouldn't need the forgotten slides (other lecture material was also presented and is included in a separate podcast, part of the Addiction Science Network Addiction Training Series; the class will get the regularly scheduled material during the next lecture period).

OK, I see yet another issue and you won't have to wait for a commentary or even a podcast for this one: if there is no evidence for the medicinal use of marijuana, why did the FDA approve dronabinol (synthetic THC) for medicinal use? Replies from the FDA welcomed and will be posted here.

The FDA has argued that dronabinol can be substituted for smoked marijuana, but this isn't really true for the reasons partially described in the podcast. (And why would the FDA even argue that dronabinol substitutes for something that doesn't work according to them?) Hint: the problem with substituting orally administered dronabinol for smoked marijuana has to do primarily with how pharmacokinetics influence a drug's psychological impact (including its mood-elevating and potentially its pain-relieving properties as well). But a full explanation of how that works is in another podcast (Click here if you really want to learn about how pharmacokinetics affect a drug's psychological impact. Warning: you have to listen through a lot of material before reaching the part which addresses this topic; the presentation is a little over an hour long.)

Yes, I know, I could have written the entire commentary in probably fewer words than it took to set up the background for the podcast. But it's more fun keeping you in suspense and I don't have to worry so much about grammar and parallel sentence structure. (Really, I 'worry' about those things; doesn't it show? ;))


Addiction is an Equal Opportunity Affliction

09/26/12 | by the professor [mail] | Categories: General, Harm-Reduction Strategies, Addiction Technology Transfer Initiative


A central theme that I’ve been teaching in my courses on drug addiction for the past 30 years is that “drug addiction is an equally opportunity affliction.” Unfortunately, this is ‘news’ to too many of my advanced undergraduate psychology students. After just a few weeks of examining the diversity of case studies and then provided with a simple model that unifies the many ‘paths to addiction’ to a single common ‘cause,’ students become excited about the ‘recent progress’ in understanding addiction and fully expect that neuroscientists will find ‘the cure’ in short order. That is, now having recognized what really drives addiction, shouldn’t scientists be able to quickly resolve this disorder which extracts such a horrific toll on the individual, on their friends and families, and on society?

The message is what we (i.e., basic scientists) have known for years, but popular media, many clinicians, and even too many misguided drug-addiction specialists have managed to keep the pond muddied by stirring up the waters with popular discourse and dramatic portrayals played out in endless psychodrama that captivates audiences every time across time. In my primary drug addiction course alone I’ve taught nearly 3,000 400-level students during the past 26 years at the University at Buffalo. Surely there should be a multiplicative effect of my training as they go out and spread-the-word as the next generation physicians, clinical psychologists, counselors, sociologists, and even politicians. And there’s the scores of other professors just like me, some teaching this simple theme even longer. But at last, popular misconceptions like superstitions are just too damn hard to kill off. And “today’s insight” will probably remain a “new discovery” for another 25 years as this professor retires and hopefully the next one caries the torch educating and enlightening thousands more during his/her tenure as a university professor. The more things change, the more they stay the same.

The psychobiological model (Bozarth, 1990) that I teach is rather simple; it’s based largely on what is termed the “exposure model of addiction.” Basically, exposure to an addictive substance and the subsequent effect on brain reward and motivation pathways leads to addiction for many people. The varieties of personalities and subcultures that become addicted is also a product of exposure but with the added feature of psychosocial factors which govern such variables as (1) who has access to the drug, (2) who will experiment with the drug, (3) the cost and purity of the drug, (4) which drug or drugs are popular and how are they administered (e.g., “crack” cocaine is probably more addictive in some respects than is powered cocaine because of the routes they are administered despite being two forms of the same active chemical), and (5) who will find sufficient extrinsic rewards in the culture of their drug-taking behavior (e.g., peers who encourage actual drug taking and its ancillary behaviors) and thus continue their drug-taking behavior long enough for the critical neuroadaptive effects to occur which are ultimately responsible for an addiction. This is where the psychological and sociological variables exert an important influence on who is and is not likely to ultimately become an addict—during the early acquisition stage of developing an addiction. There is plenty of room for popular psychosocial and cultural variables to play a role in addiction and to present cyclic variations in “types” of people who become addicts; the role is just much different that commonly perceived. There are also high-risk groups, some genetically predisposed to experience an exceptionally strong motivating effect from their early drug-use experience and there are co-morbid disorders which may introduce a variety of secondary influences on the drug’s pharmacological effects (e.g., ADHD?, psychological depression?). Nonetheless, the “exposure model” provides a point of convergence for the sundry personalities and subcultures that find the allure of the drug irresistible. The drug is guilty; the addict makes one critical mistake—they sustain their initial use of the ‘wrong’ drug sufficiently long for the neurochemical sequel to develop which leads to addiction.

The popular media, from talk shows to Hollywood movies, will probably never get on the page and portray the real story behind addiction. They will continue to promulgate the popular myths about addiction finding better dramatic material in the cases that admittedly have an interesting story to tell about why they began their illicit substance use, while obscuring the fact that it wasn’t actually the perverted “Uncle Albert” but the drug which is the responsible agent for the addiction. The truth simply doesn’t make a good story. Mary sexually abused by her grandfather, Tom bullied as a child, Nancy stressed out by her failed sex-change surgery are much more entertaining to watch and read about, and they elicit much more empathy from viewers who can relate to various aspects of the anguish that leads to their addiction. Watching young people experiencing the intense rush produced by “crack” cocaine, bouncing from stranger to stranger on the street looking for money for the next fix to feed their cocaine craving has the home audience chanting in unison “they get what they deserve” and then quickly turning to another program. The market writes the message.

During Alan Leshner‘s tenure as director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1994-2001), “addiction is a brain disease” became the mantra of the Institute. Whether it’s a “disease, disorder, or syndrome” may be debatable, but it’s certainly a “brain” something unless one wishes to accept pixie dust as the mechanism behind drives and motivations, lusts and desires. The “patterns” are easy to explain—simply examine the psychological and social-cultural variables that initiate and sustain the period of early drug-use; there your personality types, sociological sub-groups and other patterns will emerge, based on who tries the drug not on why they try the drug, no requisite personality types or pixie dust required. The ‘chemicals’ in the drug interact with the ‘chemicals’ of the brain—it’s that simple.

Suggested Reading:

Drug Addiction as a Psychobiological Process
Pleasure systems in the brain


ASNet Update12L21

09/21/12 | by the professor [mail] | Categories: General, Announcements, Nomenclature, Addiction Technology Transfer Initiative


We have added several new podcasts this week which are listed below. We're excited about this technology and we're moving ahead, perhaps a little faster than we should according to the experts. Obviously, there is a learning curve and we hope to steadily improve our podcasts with experience. We may even go back and re-record some as we become a bit more 'professional.'

Please note that we will begin posting podcast links at the bottom of the commentaries when available. We are moving from top to bottom posting to avoid our podcast URL being displayed as the beginning of the commentary in summary tables and RSS feeds. Please scroll to the bottom if you're interested in a podcast of a specific commentary. You can also use our ASNet Podcast Directory from our website. Podcasts will be listed there by date and by several other orders of presentation when the page revisions are complete. We are duplicating the listings in different orders to help people find those of interest to our various listeners. The links below are for streaming audio which does not require download of the podcast. We are using another service for streaming podcast at the moment to keep our bandwidth demand manageable on our regular server while we gauge the interest in this channel. You can view and leave feedback as well as 'rate' our podcasts at our Podomatic home page.

New Podcasts
ASNet Essential Concepts for Understanding Addiction (length: 1hr2min)
ASNet Why Distinguishing Drug Abuse from Drug Addiction is Important (length: 7min56sec)
ASNet Einstein and the Science of Addiction (length: 7min14sec)
Defining Addiction: What are the necessary attributes? (length: 11min48sec)

Earlier Podcasts
ASNet Commentary on New Opioid Prescribing Guidelines (length: 4min51sec)
ASNet Primer on Addiction (length: 15min37sec)

A new commentary is available:
Defining Addiction: What are the necessary attributes? for those who would prefer reading instead of the podcast listed above.

A new ASNet Discussion Forum category has been added to support our Addiction Technology Transfer Initiative. The new forum is provided to discuss specific issues regarding addiction technology transfer, general suggestions, and other feedback; it's intended more to address the approach, style, or other outreach ideas than the actual content of our presentations, but all topics are open. This discussion forum, our Addiction Science Network website, and our new podcast channel are all components of that program. Your comments are always welcomed. We like to know that we are reaching people and how we can improve our independent voice for Addiction Science.

Finally, we are still working on setting up our RSS feeds directly for the podcasts. In the interim, you can subscribe to the RSS feeds for our Announcements to view our list as it become revised periodically.

Obviously we are "back in the saddle again." We don't know how long we'll be on this ride before falling off our horse again, but we're rolling now. Probably by the end of November we will have to turn our attention to completing a book which has been delayed now for far too long. :oops:

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An open, unmoderated discussion forum for the Addiction Science Network, promoting free and open exchange of evidence-based information and promoting scientific analysis of drug addiction and related topics.


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